"2018 World Cup" redirects here. For other competitions of ghanaian that name, see.
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The 2018 FIFA World Cup was the 21st, an international tournament contested by the of the member associations of once every four years. It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July 2018. It was the first World Cup to be held in, and the 11th time that it had been held in Europe. At an estimated cost of over.2 billion, it was the most expensive World Cup. It was also the first World Cup to use the (VAR) system.
The finals involved 32 teams, of which 31 came through, while the qualified automatically. Of the 32 teams, 20 had also appeared in the previous tournament in, while both and made their first appearances at a ghanaian traditional dresses 2019 FIFA World Cup. A total of 64 matches were played in 12 venues across 11 cities.
The took place on 15 July at the in, between and. France won the match 4–2 to claim their, marking the fourth consecutive title won by a European team.
Main article:Russian bid personnel celebrate the awarding of the 2018 World Cup to Russia on 2 December 2010. The 100- commemorative banknote celebrates the 2018 FIFA World Cup. It features an image of Soviet goalkeeper.
The began in January 2009, and national associations had until 2 February 2009 to register their interest. Initially, nine countries placed bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, but Mexico later withdrew from proceedings, and Indonesia's bid was rejected by FIFA in February 2010 after the Indonesian government failed to submit a letter to support the bid. During the bidding process, the three remaining non- nations (Australia, Japan, and the United States) gradually withdrew from the 2018 bids, and the UEFA nations were thus ruled out of the 2022 bid. As such, there were eventually four bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, two of which were joint bids: England, Russia, Netherlands/Belgium, and Portugal/Spain.
The 22-member convened in on 2 December 2010 to vote to select the hosts of both tournaments. Russia won the right to be the 2018 host in the second round of voting. The Portugal/Spain bid came second, and that from Belgium/Netherlands third. England, which was bidding to host its second tournament, was eliminated in the first round.
The voting results were as follows:2018 FIFA bidding (majority 12 votes) Bidders Votes Round 1 Round 2 Russia 9 13 Portugal / Spain 7 7 Belgium / Netherlands 4 2 England 2 Eliminated
The English and others raised concerns of bribery on the part of the Russian team and corruption from FIFA members. They claimed that four members of the executive committee had requested bribes to vote for England, and had said that it had already been arranged before the vote that Russia would win. The 2014, an internal investigation led by, was withheld from public release by, FIFA's head of adjudication on ethical matters. Eckert instead released a shorter revised summary, and his (and therefore FIFA's) reluctance to publish the full report caused Garcia to resign in protest. Because of the controversy, the FA refused to accept Eckert's absolving of Russia from blame, with calling for a re-examination of the affair and calling for a boycott of the World Cup.
For the first time in the history of the FIFA World Cup, all eligible nations – the 209 minus automatically qualified hosts Russia – applied to enter the qualifying process. and were later disqualified before playing their first matches, while and, who joined FIFA on 13 May 2016 after the qualifying draw but before European qualifying had begun, also entered the competition. Places in the tournament were allocated to continental confederations, with the allocation unchanged from the 2014 World Cup. The first qualification game, between and, began in on 12 March 2015 as part of the, and the main qualifying draw took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in,, on 25 July 2015.
Of the 32 nations qualified to play at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, 20 countries competed at the previous tournament in. Both Iceland and Panama qualified for the first time, with the former becoming the to reach the World Cup. Other teams returning after absences of at least three tournaments include: Egypt, returning to the finals after their last appearance in 1990; Morocco, who last competed in 1998; Peru, returning after 1982; and Senegal, competing for the second time after reaching the quarter-finals in 2002. It is the first time three (Denmark, Iceland and Sweden) and four (Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia) have qualified for the World Cup.
Notable countries that failed to qualify include four-time champions (for the first time since 1958), three-time runners-up and third placed in 2014 the (for the first time since 2002), and four reigning continental champions: winners, two-time champions and runners-up, winners, and champions (for the first time since 1986). The other notable qualifying streaks broken were for and, who had both made the previous three tournaments.
Note: Numbers in parentheses indicate positions in the at the time of the tournament.
Main article:Italian World Cup winner in Moscow at the 2018 World Cup draw
The draw was held on 1 December 2017 at 18:00 at the in. The 32 teams were drawn into 8 groups of 4, by selecting one team from each of the 4 ranked pots.
For the draw, the teams were allocated to four pots based on the of October 2017. Pot 1 contained the hosts Russia (who were automatically assigned to position A1) and the best seven teams, pot 2 contained the next best eight teams, and so on for pots 3 and 4. This was different from previous draws, when only pot 1 was based on FIFA rankings while the remaining pots were based on geographical considerations. However, teams from the same confederation still were not drawn against each other for the group stage, except that two UEFA teams could be in each group.
Initially, each team had to name a preliminary squad of 30 players but, in February 2018, this was increased to 35. From the preliminary squad, the team had to name a final squad of 23 players (three of whom must be goalkeepers) by 4 June. Players in the final squad may be replaced for serious injury up to 24 hours prior to kickoff of the team's first match and such replacements do not need to have been named in the preliminary squad.
For players named in the 35-player preliminary squad, there was a mandatory rest period between 21 and 27 May 2018, except for those involved in the played on 26 May.
On 29 March 2018, released the list of 36 referees and 63 assistant referees selected to oversee matches. On 30 April 2018, FIFA released the list of 13 video assistant referees, who solely acted in this capacity in the tournament.
Referee of Saudi Arabia was removed in 30 May 2018 over a match-fixing attempt, along with his two assistant referees, compatriots Mohammed Al-Abakry and Abdulah Al-Shalwai. A new referee was not appointed, but two assistant referees, Hasan Al Mahri of the United Arab Emirates and Hiroshi Yamauchi of Japan, were added to the list. Assistant referee of Kenya also withdrew after the released an investigation conducted by a Ghanaian journalist which implicated Marwa in a bribery scandal.
Video assistant refereesVAR in use in during the Group D match between Nigeria and Iceland, at Volgograd.
Shortly after the 's decision to incorporate (VARs) into the, on 16 March 2018, the took the much-anticipated step of approving the use of VAR for the first time in a FIFA World Cup tournament.
VAR operations for all games are operating from a single headquarters in Moscow, which receives live video of the games and are in radio contact with the on-field referees. Systems are in place for communicating VAR-related information to broadcasters and visuals on stadiums' large screens are used for the fans in attendance.
VAR had a significant impact in several games. On 15 June 2018, 's goal against Portugal became the first World Cup goal based on a VAR decision; the first penalty as a result of a VAR decision was awarded to France in their match against Australia on 16 June and resulted in a goal by. A record number of penalties were awarded in the tournament, with this phenomenon being partially attributed to VAR. Overall, the new technology has been both praised and criticised by commentators. FIFA declared the implementation of VAR a success after the first week of competition.
Russia proposed the following host cities:,,,,,,,,,,,, and. Most cities are in, while and are very close to the Europe-Asia border, to reduce travel time for the teams in the huge country. The bid evaluation report stated: "The Russian bid proposes 13 host cities and 16 stadiums, thus exceeding FIFA's minimum requirement. Three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed."
In October 2011, Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to 14. Construction of the proposed stadium in the Moscow region was cancelled by the regional government, and also in the capital, was competing with over which would be constructed first.
The final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September 2012. The number of cities was further reduced to 11 and number of stadiums to 12 as Krasnodar and Yaroslavl were dropped from the final list. Of the 12 stadiums used for the tournament, 3 (Luzhniki, Yekaterinburg and Sochi) have been extensively renovated and the other 9 stadiums to be used are brand new;.8 billion has been spent on hosting the tournament.
Sepp Blatter stated in July 2014 that, given the concerns over the completion of venues in Russia, the number of venues for the tournament may be reduced from 12 to 10. He also said, "We are not going to be in a situation, as is the case of one, two or even three stadiums, where it is a problem of what you do with these stadiums".Reconstruction of the Yekaterinburg Central Stadium in January 2017
In October 2014, on their first official visit to Russia, FIFA's inspection committee and its head Chris Unger visited St Petersburg, Sochi, Kazan and both Moscow venues. They were satisfied with the progress.
On 8 October 2015, FIFA and the Local Organising Committee agreed on the official names of the stadiums used during the tournament.
Of the twelve venues used, the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow and the Saint Petersburg Stadium – the two largest stadiums in Russia – were used most, both hosting seven matches. Sochi, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara all hosted six matches, including one quarter-final match each, while the Otkrytiye Stadium in Moscow and Rostov-on-Don hosted five matches, including one round-of-16 match each. Volgograd, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg and Saransk all hosted four matches, but did not host any knockout stage games.
StadiumsExterior of Otkrytie Arena in Moscow
A total of twelve stadiums in eleven Russian cities were built and renovated for the FIFA World Cup.
- Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad Stadium. The first piles were driven into the ground in September 2015. On 11 April 2018 the new stadium hosted its first match.
- Kazan: Kazan Arena. The stadium was built for the 2013 Summer Universiade. It has since hosted the 2015 World Aquatics Championship and the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup. The stadium serves as a home arena to.
- Moscow: Luzhniki Stadium. The largest stadium in the country was closed for renovation in 2013. The stadium was commissioned in November 2017.
- Moscow: Spartak Stadium. The stadium is a home arena to its namesake. In accordance with the FIFA requirements, during the 2018 World Cup it is called Spartak Stadium instead of its usual name Otkritie Arena. The stadium hosted its first match on 5 September 2014.
- Nizhny Novgorod: Nizhny Novgorod Stadium. The construction of the Nizhny Novgorod Stadium commenced in 2015. The project was completed in December 2017.
- Rostov-on-Don: Rostov Arena. The stadium is located on the left bank of the Don River. The stadium construction was completed on 22 December 2017.
- Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg Stadium. The construction of the stadium commenced in 2007. The project was officially completed on 29 December 2016. The stadium has hosted games of the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and will serve as a venue for.
- Samara: Samara Arena. The construction officially started on 21 July 2014. The project was completed on 21 April 2018.
- Saransk: Mordovia Arena. The stadium in Saransk was scheduled to be commissioned in 2012 in time for the opening of the all-Russian Spartakiad, but the plan was revised. The opening was rescheduled to 2017. The arena hosted its first match on 21 April 2018.
- Sochi: Fisht Stadium. The stadium hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the. Afterwards, it was renovated in preparation for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2018 World Cup.
- Volgograd: Volgograd Arena. The main arena of Volgograd was built on the demolished site, at the foot of the Mamayev Kurgan memorial complex. The stadium was commissioned on 3 April 2018.
- Yekaterinburg: Ekaterinburg Arena. The Central Stadium of Yekaterinburg has been renovated for the FIFA World Cup. The arena's stands have a capacity of 35,000 spectators. The renovation project was completed in December 2017.
(Saint Petersburg Stadium)
(Fisht Stadium) Capacity: 78,011 Capacity: 44,190 Capacity: 64,468 Capacity: 44,287 Capacity: 43,713 Capacity: 43,472 Capacity: 43,319 Capacity: 42,873
(Ekaterinburg Arena) Capacity: 41,970 Capacity: 41,685 Capacity: 33,973 Capacity: 33,061
Team base camps
Base camps were used by the 32 national squads to stay and train before and during the World Cup tournament. On 9 February 2018, FIFA announced the base camps for each participating team.
- Belgium:, Moscow Oblast
- Colombia:, Republic of Tatarstan
- Costa Rica:
- Denmark:, Krasnodar Krai
- England:, Saint Petersburg
- France:, Moscow Oblast
- Iceland:, Krasnodar Krai
- Iran: Bakovka, Moscow Oblast
- Japan: Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan
- Mexico:, Moscow Oblast
- Peru: Moscow
- Poland: Sochi, Krasnodar Krai
- Portugal:, Moscow Oblast
- Russia: Khimki, Moscow Oblast
- Saudi Arabia: Saint Petersburg
- South Korea: Saint Petersburg
- Spain:, Krasnodar Krai
- Sweden: Gelendzhik, Krasnodar Krai
- Tunisia: Pervomayskoye, Moscow Oblast
Preparation and costs
BudgetScale model of the. Construction began in 2015.
At an estimated cost of over.2 billion as of June 2018, it is the most expensive World Cup in history, surpassing the cost of the in Brazil.
The had originally earmarked a of around billion which was later slashed to billion for the preparations of the World Cup, of which half is spent on transport infrastructure. As part of the program for preparation to the 2018 FIFA World Cup, a federal sub-program "Construction and Renovation of Transport Infrastructure" was implemented with a total budget of 352.5 billion rubles, with 170.3 billion coming from the federal budget, 35.1 billion from regional budgets, and 147.1 billion from investors. The biggest item of federal spending was the aviation infrastructure (117.8 billion rubles). Construction of new hotels was a crucial area of infrastructure development in the World Cup host cities. Costs continued to balloon as preparations were underway.
in was upgraded with automated air traffic control systems, modern surveillance, navigation, communication, control, and meteorological support systems. in was upgraded with radio-engineering tools for flight operation and received its second runway strip. received a new navigation system; the city also got two new hotels, Mercure Saransk Centre (Accor Hotels) and Four Points by Sheraton Saransk (Starwood Hotels) as well as few other smaller accommodation facilities. In, new tram lines were laid. in was upgraded with radio navigation and weather equipment. Renovation and upgrade of radio-engineering tools for flight operation was completed in the airports of,,,, Yekaterinburg, and. On 27 March, the Ministry of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector of Russia reported that all communications within its area of responsibility have been commissioned. The last facility commissioned was a waste treatment station in Volgograd. In Yekaterinburg, where four matches are hosted, hosting costs increased to over 7.4 billion rubles, over-running the 5.6 billion rubles originally allocated from the state and regional budget.
VolunteersVolunteer flag bearers on the field prior to 's (flag depicted) group stage match against
Volunteer applications to the Russia 2018 Local Organising Committee opened on 1 June 2016. The 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia Volunteer Program received about 177,000 applications, and engaged a total of 35,000 volunteers. They received training at 15 Volunteer Centres of the Local Organising Committee based in 15 universities, and in Volunteer Centres in the host cities. Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals.
Free services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.
ScheduleLaunching of a 1,000 days countdown in Moscow
The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July 2015 (without kick-off times, which were confirmed later). On 1 December 2017, following the final draw, six kick-off times were adjusted by FIFA.
Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the in on 14 June against, the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw. The Luzhniki Stadium also hosted the second semi-final on 11 July and the final on 15 July. The in hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July.
The opening ceremony took place on Thursday, 14 June 2018, at the in Moscow, preceding the between hosts and.
At the start of the ceremony, Russian president gave a speech, welcoming the countries of the world to Russia and calling football a uniting force. Brazilian World Cup-winning striker entered the stadium with a child in a Russia shirt. Pop singer then sang two of his songs solo before he and Russian soprano performed a duet. Dancers dressed in the flags of the 32 competing teams appeared carrying a sign with the name of each nation. At the end of the ceremony Ronaldo reappeared with the official match ball which had returned from the in early June.
Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams (groups A to H). Teams in each group played one another in a basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the. Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico.
For the first time since, Germany (reigning champions) did not advance past the first round. For the first time since, no African team progressed to the second round. For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards. Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless. Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored.
All times listed below are.
The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows:
- Points obtained in all group matches;
- Goal difference in all group matches;
- Number of goals scored in all group matches;
- Points obtained in the matches played between the teams in question;
- Goal difference in the matches played between the teams in question;
- Number of goals scored in the matches played between the teams in question;
- Fair play points in all group matches (only one deduction could be applied to a player in a single match):
- Yellow card: –1 points;
- Indirect red card (second yellow card): –3 points;
- Direct red card: –4 points;
- Yellow card and direct red card: –5 points;
- Drawing of lots.
Group APre-match ceremony prior to the opening game, Russia v Saudi Arabia
Main article:Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification 1 3 3 0 0 5 0 +5 9 Advance to 2 (H) 3 2 0 1 8 4 +4 6 3 3 1 0 2 2 7 −5 3 4 3 0 0 3 2 6 −4 0
14 June 2018 (2018-06-14)18:00 ()
15 June 2018 (2018-06-15)17:00 ()
19 June 2018 (2018-06-19)21:00 ()
20 June 2018 (2018-06-20)18:00 ()
25 June 2018 (2018-06-25)18:00 ()
25 June 2018 (2018-06-25)17:00 ()
Group BThe first match of the group, Iran's squad against in St. Petersburg
Main article:Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification 1 3 1 2 0 6 5 +1 5 Advance to 2 3 1 2 0 5 4 +1 5 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 0 4 4 3 0 1 2 2 4 −2 1
15 June 2018 (2018-06-15)18:00 ()
15 June 2018 (2018-06-15)21:00 ()
20 June 2018 (2018-06-20)15:00 ()
20 June 2018 (2018-06-20)21:00 ()
25 June 2018 (2018-06-25)21:00 ()
25 June 2018 (2018-06-25)20:00 ()
Group CAustralia v Peru
Main article:Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification 1 3 2 1 0 3 1 +2 7 Advance to 2 3 1 2 0 2 1 +1 5 3 3 1 0 2 2 2 0 3 4 3 0 1 2 2 5 −3 1
16 June 2018 (2018-06-16)13:00 ()
16 June 2018 (2018-06-16)19:00 ()
21 June 2018 (2018-06-21)16:00 ()
21 June 2018 (2018-06-21)20:00 ()
26 June 2018 (2018-06-26)17:00 ()
26 June 2018 (2018-06-26)17:00 ()
Group DIceland v Croatia
Main article:Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification 1 3 3 0 0 7 1 +6 9 Advance to 2 3 1 1 1 3 5 −2 4 3 3 1 0 2 3 4 −1 3 4 3 0 1 2 2 5 −3 1
16 June 2018 (2018-06-16)16:00 ()
16 June 2018 (2018-06-16)21:00 ()
21 June 2018 (2018-06-21)21:00 ()
22 June 2018 (2018-06-22)18:00 ()
26 June 2018 (2018-06-26)21:00 ()
26 June 2018 (2018-06-26)21:00 ()
Group EBrazil v Costa Rica
Main article:Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification 1 3 2 1 0 5 1 +4 7 Advance to 2 3 1 2 0 5 4 +1 5 3 3 1 0 2 2 4 −2 3 4 3 0 1 2 2 5 −3 1
17 June 2018 (2018-06-17)16:00 ()
17 June 2018 (2018-06-17)21:00 ()
22 June 2018 (2018-06-22)15:00 ()
22 June 2018 (2018-06-22)20:00 ()
27 June 2018 (2018-06-27)21:00 ()
27 June 2018 (2018-06-27)21:00 ()
Group FGermany v Mexico
Main article:Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification 1 3 2 0 1 5 2 +3 6 Advance to 2 3 2 0 1 3 4 −1 6 3 3 1 0 2 3 3 0 3 4 3 1 0 2 2 4 −2 3
17 June 2018 (2018-06-17)18:00 ()
18 June 2018 (2018-06-18)15:00 ()
23 June 2018 (2018-06-23)18:00 ()
23 June 2018 (2018-06-23)21:00 ()
27 June 2018 (2018-06-27)17:00 ()
27 June 2018 (2018-06-27)19:00 ()
Group GBelgium v Tunisia
Main article:Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification 1 3 3 0 0 9 2 +7 9 Advance to 2 3 2 0 1 8 3 +5 6 3 3 1 0 2 5 8 −3 3 4 3 0 0 3 2 11 −9 0
18 June 2018 (2018-06-18)18:00 ()
18 June 2018 (2018-06-18)21:00 ()
23 June 2018 (2018-06-23)15:00 ()
24 June 2018 (2018-06-24)15:00 ()
28 June 2018 (2018-06-28)20:00 ()
28 June 2018 (2018-06-28)21:00 ()
Group HJapan v Poland
Main article:Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification 1 3 2 0 1 5 2 +3 6 Advance to 2 3 1 1 1 4 4 0 4 3 Senegal 3 1 1 1 4 4 0 4 4 3 1 0 2 2 5 −3 3
- ^ Fair play points: Japan −4, Senegal −6.
19 June 2018 (2018-06-19)15:00 ()
19 June 2018 (2018-06-19)18:00 ()
24 June 2018 (2018-06-24)20:00 ()
24 June 2018 (2018-06-24)21:00 ()
28 June 2018 (2018-06-28)17:00 ()
28 June 2018 (2018-06-28)18:00 ()
Knockout stageRussia v Croatia
In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, is played (two periods of 15 minutes each) and followed, if necessary, by a to determine the winners.
If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament.
Round of 16
30 June 2018 (2018-06-30)17:00 ()
30 June 2018 (2018-06-30)21:00 ()
1 July 2018 (2018-07-01)17:00 ()
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